Immunohistochemical Expression of K-Ras and Bcl-2 Protein
Tumor Markers in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma among
Sudanese Patients

Tagwa A. Mustafa, Ahmed H. Mohammed, Esam M. Abdul Raheem.
Immunohistochemical Expression of K-Ras and Bcl-2 Protein Tumor Markers in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma among Sudanese Patients. African Journal of Medical Sciences, 2018, 3 (11) ajmsc.inf Abstract Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm in both men and women with an estimated 96,830 cases of colon cancer and 50,310 deaths from colon cancer predicted for 2014. Colorectal cancer affects the inner wall of the colon and the rectum located within 12 cm or less from the anal verge. CRC is characterized by late clinical manifestation and relatively rapid progression of the disease, both features that are primarily responsible for increased morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from this disease. There is new evidence that epigenetic slicing of genes may be an early event in the adenoma carcinoma sequence. If CRC is diagnosed early enough, it can be considered to be preventable. This makes it critical that inexpensive, highly sensitive, specific and non-invasive biomarkers be developed. Objective: To detect the immunohistochemical expression of K-Ras and Bcl-2 protein tumor markers in colorectal adenocarcinoma among Sudanese patients. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective, analytical, case control study conducted at Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital and Omdurman Teaching Hospital (Khartoum State) during the period from April 2013 to December 2016. Paraffin embedded tissue specimens of 75 colorectal adenocarcinoma patients were investigated for K-ras and Bcl- 2 protein expression by immunohistochemical (IHC) technique using 2-step plus Poly-HRP Anti-Rabbit/Mouse IgG Detection System. Staining patterns were subjectively assessed and correlated with clinicopathological features. The results were statistically evaluated using the Chi-square test, frequencies, and cross-tabling test. Results: Among the 75 cases subjected to K-ras immuno-staining, 48 (64%) cases were positive and for Bcl 2 protein 12% of cases were positive. Also the study found that there was significant relation between type of tumor (metastasized and non-metastasized ) in colorectal adenocarcinoma with K- ras (p = 0.034); and insignificant with Bcl 2 (p = 0.296). Also for positive K-ras cases, 73% cases (37%) positive non metastasize malignant tumor and metastasize one . The distribution of gender in the study population revealed that 43 cases (57.3%) were males and 32 cases (42.7%) were females. There was no association between gender and K-ras or Bcl 2 expression (p = 0.789). The distribution of age groups was significant

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